A Complete Guide To In Vitro Fertilization

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The full form of IVF is in vitro fertilization, and this is a kind of reproductive technology. This is actually a process of fertilization where the doctor has to extract eggs from a woman’s uterus and then retrieve a sperm sample for a male’s body to combine them.

There are a few renowned IVF centers in Delhi, and one can go there if they are having difficulties like:

  • Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes.
  • Women with ovulation disorders, premature ovarian failure or uterine fibroids.
  • Male factor infertility that also includes decreased sperm count or sperm motility.
  • Women who have removed their fallopian tubes.
  • Women with ovulation disorders, premature ovarian failure, uterine fibroids.
  • Individuals with a genetic disorder.

If one wants to have a healthy baby, and that too from an IVF treatment, then they need to think about a lot of factors. One has to consider their age and also what exactly the reason is which is causing infertility. Apart from these factors, this process itself can be very daunting and exhausting because it takes a lot of time, and at the same time, this can be really expensive to the pockets. Like, if one has to implant more than one embryo in the uterus, then it can also end up in multiple pregnancies.

But the major question is why at all this IVF process is attempted? There are lots of couples who are unable to have a baby for one or the other reasons, and hence, they might think of undergoing this process. But this is not the first option that one should think of. They must try some fertility drugs first, which can increase the productivity of the eggs or the sperms, and then, it can be directly planted within the uterus to see if that makes the ovulation possible or not.

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IVF is only offered as the primary source of treatment for women who have already reached the age of 40, and are also suffering from some infertility issues. Here are some major reasons why one needs to go for an IVF treatment:

  • If there is a kind of blockage or damage in the fallopian tube. This makes the eggs very difficult to fertilize or an embryo to travel to the uterus.
  • If there is a premature ovarian failure. This is actually the loss of normal ovarian functions before one reaches the age of 40. If the ovaries fail, then they fail to produce a normal amount of the hormone estrogen.
  • If there is an ovulation disorder like it is absent or less frequent and very few eggs are available for fertilization.
  • There can also be uterine fibroids. They are benign tumors in the walls of the uterus that can interfere with the implantation of fertilized eggs.
  • There can be another thing called endometriosis. It can occur when the uterus tissue implants and grows outside the uterus and so it affects the functions of uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

The steps that are followed in the treatment:

There are a few basic steps when there are IVF and embryo transfers happening. The very first step is fertility medication, and it is done in order to stimulate egg production. Here one needs more than one eggs because there will be some eggs that will not get fertilized once they are retrieved. There is also a test done called the transvaginal ultrasound that mostly examines the ovaries, and then, blood samples are taken to check the hormone levels.

Then comes the next step. Here, the eggs that are retrieved needs to go through a minor surgical procedure so that a hollow needle is passed through the pelvic cavity to remove the eggs. Sometimes medication is also used in order to reduce the potential discomfort that one might feel.

Then the male is asked to give a sample of their sperms, which are then prepared to get combined with the egg. After that, there is a process called insemination where egg and sperms are mixed together, and then, stored in a laboratory dish so that it can get fertilized.  In many cases, there can be a lower chance of fertilization, but, in some cases, a single sperm is injected into an egg so that it can get fertilized properly. The eggs are monitored well so that one can get confirmed that the cell division is actually taking place. When the fertilization happens, then the eggs are said to be the embryos.

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Finally, the embryos are transferred to the woman’s uterus after 3 to 5 days of the egg’s retrieval and fertilization.  Then a small tube or a catheter is inserted in the uterus in order to transfer the embryos. This procedure is actually painless in the case of most women, but some can face mild cramping. If this procedure is also successful, then the implantation happens 6 to 10 days after the retrieval.

After the procedure is over, women can take their normal activities day-to-day, but there can be some side effects of IVF as well. They are:

  • Passage of a small amount of blood.
  • Mild cramping
  • Constipation
  • Mild bloating
  • Breast tenderness

In most cases, this procedure of IVF can become successful until and unless it is too complicated. 

One might get a bit apprehensive about the eggs and the sperms that are used. But when one goes to an IVF centre to donate the eggs or the sperms, they have to go through an elongated process. A regular medical check-up is done on them to see whether they have some major medical issues or not. Their family history is also checked (like if there have been any disease in the family before which can be genetically or hereditary). After checking all of these, they are approved to donate sperms and eggs, and hence, one must not worry about them and go for the process without thinking twice if it is that much necessary.